Transforming India from 5G to 6G: Modernization Efforts and Challenges


by – Mr. Soumya Ranjan Jena (Faculty Associate, Mahindra University, Telangana)

The transition from 5G to 6G in India is a critical phase in the evolution of wireless technology. 6G is currently in the research and development phase, with commercial deployment expected in the 2030s. 1G was the first commercially available wireless communication technology, primarily deployed in the 1980s. 2G emerged in the early 1990s and brought digital communication to mobile devices. 3G arrived in the early 2000s, offering faster data transfer rates and enabling mobile internet access. 4G became prevalent around 2010, providing significantly faster data speeds and better support for mobile data applications. 5G started rolling out in the late 2010s and continues to expand globally. 6G is currently in the research and development phase, with commercial deployment expected in the 2030s.

This article explores the modernization efforts and challenges associated with this transformative process. The modernization efforts encompass infrastructure development, spectrum allocation, research and development, and regulatory framework adjustments. However, challenges such as funding, spectrum scarcity, security concerns, rural connectivity, environmental impact, and global standards alignment need to be addressed. This transition represents both immense potential for technological advancement and formidable hurdles, making it essential for India to adopt a collaborative approach involving government, industry, and academia to successfully embrace 6G technology.

Modernization Efforts:

6G technology supports device proliferation and mobile data trafficking. The shift to 6G aims to enhance connectivity for everyone and everything from everywhere through a highly scalable and flexible network structure. The new structure requirements include a higher data rate, low latency, and cost, as well as energy reduction.

Infrastructure Development:

6G will require a significant overhaul of India’s existing wireless infrastructure. This includes upgrading cell towers, laying out fiber-optic networks, and expanding the coverage of small cells and base stations to support the high-frequency spectrum used in 6G.

Investments in massive MIMO (Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output) technology, beamforming, and dynamic spectrum sharing will be crucial for achieving the expected performance gains in 6G.

Spectrum Allocation:

India will need to allocate new spectrum bands for 6G technology, which operate at much higher frequencies than 5G. The government will play a vital role in efficiently distributing these frequencies among telecom operators. Collaborating with international bodies to ensure harmonized spectrum allocations and standards will be essential for seamless global connectivity.

Research and Development:

Encouraging research and development in emerging technologies like terahertz communications, AI-driven networking, and quantum communications is crucial. Collaborations between academia, industry, and government agencies are needed to drive innovation and create a favorable environment for 6G development.

Regulatory Framework:

The regulatory framework needs to be adapted to accommodate the unique requirements of 6G, such as security, privacy, and spectrum management. Regulations that promote competition while ensuring security and reliability are essential to the success of 6G in India.


Cost and Funding:

The transition to 6G will require substantial financial investments in infrastructure, R&D, and spectrum allocation. Securing funding sources and striking a balance between public and private investments will be challenging.

Spectrum Scarcity:

High-frequency 6G spectrum bands are scarce and in high demand. Balancing the allocation of spectrum among various stakeholders, including telecom operators and government agencies, is a complex task.

Security Concerns:

6G networks will be more complex and interconnected, which can increase security vulnerabilities. Ensuring the robustness and security of these networks against cyber threats and potential espionage is a significant challenge.

Rural Connectivity:

Expanding 6G infrastructure to rural and remote areas poses a challenge due to the cost and technical complexity. Bridging the digital divide will be essential for inclusive growth.

Environmental Impact:

The energy consumption of 6G networks, which may be much higher due to advanced technologies, poses environmental concerns. Balancing technological advancement with sustainability is a challenge.

Global Standards:

Ensuring India’s alignment with global standards and compatibility with other nations’ 6G networks is essential for international roaming and interoperability.


The transformation from 5G to 6G in India is a complex yet promising journey. Modernization efforts are poised to revolutionize the way we connect, communicate, and innovate. However, this transition is not without its formidable challenges. India’s commitment to modernization efforts, including infrastructure development, spectrum allocation, research, and regulatory adaptation, reflects its dedication to staying at the forefront of technological progress. These initiatives are critical to reaping the benefits of 6G technology, such as ultra-fast data speeds, low latency, and support for groundbreaking applications.

Nonetheless, challenges such as securing funding, managing spectrum scarcity, addressing security concerns, bridging the rural-urban digital divide, and minimizing environmental impact must be carefully navigated. These hurdles demand innovative solutions, forward-thinking policies, and sustainable practices. As India embarks on this transformative journey, it is clear that collaboration among government agencies, industry leaders, and academic institutions will be pivotal to its success. By addressing these challenges with a holistic and collaborative approach, India can ensure that the transition from 5G to 6G not only enriches the technological landscape but also benefits the nation’s economy, society, and global competitiveness. The 6G era offers immense potential for India, and with the right mix of innovation, cooperation, and diligent research, the nation can position itself as a leader in this next wave of connectivity and technological advancement.

Meet Mr. Soumya Ranjan Jena

Mr. Jena is currently working as a Faculty Associate in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the École Centrale School of Engineering, Mahindra University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. He received his M. Tech degree in Information Technology form Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India in the year 2013, B. Tech in Computer Science and Engineering degree from BPUT, Rourkela, Odisha, India in the year 2010 and also certified by CCNA and Diploma in Computer Hardware and Networking Management from CTTC, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India in the year 2011. He has 8 years of teaching experience from various reputed Universities and Colleges in India. 

On the other hand, he is basically an Academician, an Author, a Researcher, a Trainer, a Reviewer of various International Journals and International Conferences and a Keynote Speaker. His publications have more than 275+ citations, h index of 9, and i10 index of 8 (Google Scholar). He  has published 18+ international level books, around 27 international level research articles in various international journals, conferences, and filed 17+ patents. Moreover, he has been awarded by Bharat Education Excellence Awards in the year 2022, Excellent Performance in Educational Domain & Outstanding Contributions in Teaching in the year 2022 and Best Researcher by Gurukul Academic Awards in 2022.